Anaplastic thyroid cancer can present in several forms. Most commonly, it presents as a lump or nodule in the neck. These tumours grow rapidly and usually this growth can be evident to the patient or their family and friends. In some cases, anaplastic thyroid cancer presents as a mass in the neck causing difficulty in swallowing, breathing or hoarseness if one of the vocal cords is paralysed.
Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Among the various types of thyroid carcinoma, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (CAT) is the most aggressive and lethal histologic type with a median survival of 3–9 months. It accounts for less than 2% of thyroid cancers and affects adult patients between the sixth and eighth decade of life. The usual clinical picture is a rapidly growing thyroid mass invading surrounding structures with compressive symptoms. It is often accompanied by cervical lymph node enlargement and distant metastasis.
The clinical management of CAT is challenging, as it is highly resistant to chemotherapy. The treatment regimen combines surgery, when feasible, accelerated hyperfractionated external beam radiotherapy and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy.
The molecular mechanisms leading to the development and progression of CAT are complex and not yet fully understood, although they are known to involve activation of the MAPK pathway, AKT/mTOR and Wnt-ß-catenin. However, the underlying mechanisms of ATC resistance to chemotherapy are not well understood.
Protein synthesis plays an important role in regulating gene expression and dysregulation of eIF4E contributes to aberrant proliferation and survival in cancer. elF4E-regulated protein synthesis in cancer cells has been described as playing an essential role in chemotherapy resistance. Overexpression of eIF4E and MAPK-interacting kinase (Mnk)-kinase correlates with poor cancer prognosis as it preferentially enhances the translation of carcinogenesis-associated mRNAs.
It accounts for less than 2% of thyroid cancers and affects adult patients between the sixth and eighth decade of life.
The company doing research in this area isAptusBiotech.